Understanding Breast Cancer
Make an impact! Join IU Health as we participate in the Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure. Whether you walk or cheer, join one of the largest Race for the Cure teams in the nation as we raise funds and awareness to fight breast cancer. It’s not just about wearing pink: know your risks, schedule a screening and become a survivor. Find out more at http://apps.komen.org/raceforthecure/.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and every day our mothers, sisters, wives, aunts, grandmothers, cousins and friends are affected.
IU Health Cancer Centers are Indiana’s largest network of geographically-diverse cancer specialists with expertise in medical, radiation, reconstructive surgery and surgical oncology. Related through the state’s only National Cancer Institute-designated patient care center – the IU Health Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center – we bring together leading-edge clinical care and innovative cancer research.
IU Health offers the latest in prevention, detection and treatment of breast cancer. Our multidisciplinary team consists of national and international leaders in breast cancer care and research. The team specializes in treating breast cancer in very young patients, as well as rare and advanced cases. You have assurance that our highly skilled physicians, nurses, dieticians, physical therapists, spiritual care chaplains, social workers and pharmacists will work with you and your loved ones to develop the best course of treatment for your illness.
With a strong emphasis on translating research to clinical application, IU Health turns development and participation in cutting edge clinical trials into real results. Whether you are newly diagnosed, or well on the road to recovery, count on IU Health for the best in breast cancer care.
Linda K. Han, M.D.
is the Director of Breast Surgical Oncology at the Indiana University Health Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center and a researcher and professor at Indiana University School of Medicine. With more than 25 years of experience, Dr. Han specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, especially in the young patient population. Clinical interests include minimally invasive breast surgery and mastectomies that preserve the nipple and skin.Read More
Dr. Han earned her medical degree from IU School of Medicine, and completed a general surgery residency and a research fellowship at Ohio State University Hospitals. She is a member of several professional associations, including American College of Surgeons and American Society of Breast Surgeons. For more information, view Dr. Han's full profile here.
Lida A. Mina, M.D.
is the co-director of the Breast Cancer High Risk Program, at the IU Health Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center and a researcher and assistant professor at Indiana University School of Medicine. Dr. Mina specializes in prevention and treatment for women with a family history of breast cancer or a BRCA gene mutation as well as treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Read More
Dr. Mina earned her medical degree from the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, and completed a residency and fellowship at IU School of Medicine. She is a member of American Society of Clinical Oncology and American College of Physicians, and is fluent in English, Arabic and French. For more information, view Dr. Mina's full profile here.
Breast Cancer Defined
Breast cancer is a disease that occurs when cells within the breast become abnormal. The abnormal cells then divide and multiply without control to produce more cells and eventually form a
The most common form of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, in which cancerous cells originate in the ducts that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Lobular carcinoma, another form of breast cancer, starts in the lobules of the breast, where milk is produced. In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast.
Noninvasive breast cancer stays in one place, such as the milk duct or lobule tissue, and does not spread to other areas of the body. When cancer spreads to nearby healthy tissues, it is classified as invasive and is more serious.
Who Gets Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer can affect anyone. In fact, over 226,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. Several risk factors may increase your likelihood of developing breast cancer. Some risk factors cannot be controlled. These include:
- A family history of breast cancer
- Previously having breast cancer yourself
- A genetic mutation that predisposes you to breast cancer
- Long-term combination hormone replacement therapy
- Radiation to the chest and back neck at a young age
- Early onset of menstruation and late menopause
- Never having children or first child after age 30
- Abnormal cells present in a breast biopsy
Risk factors that you can control include:
- Obesity and lack of exercise
- Having more than three alcoholic drinks per week
Bev Wagner knew the importance of regular check-ups to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This is why every year for about the past 20 years, Bev visited her doctor for regular mammograms. However, after a regularly scheduled check-up Bev received a phone call immediately following her routine mammogram.
Finding New Ways to Prevent Breast Cancer
At IU Health, we are focused not only on detection and treatment, but prevention of breast cancer. Through the formation of the Komen Tissue Bank, the only normal breast tissue bio-repository bank in the world, we’re helping researchers understand how breast cancer starts. The Catherine Peachey Breast Cancer Prevention Program provides education and genetic counseling to identify women with mutations that cause breast cancer, assessing their risk and taking steps toward early detection and prevention.
For all women, the single most important way to catch early, noninvasive breast cancer early before it progresses is through regular self and physician performed breast exams. You may not experience any symptoms with early breast cancer, so self breast exams, in addition to regular mammograms as directed by your health care provider, are vital.
As breast cancer grows, symptoms such as a lump in the breast, change in size or feel or of the breast or nipple, or discharge coming from the nipple may be present. Although breast cancer primarily affects women, men can get breast cancer, too. In men, the most common symptoms are lumps and breast tenderness.
You don’t have to sit back and wait for breast cancer to strike. In addition to performing monthly self breast exams, take the following steps to stay healthy and prevent breast cancer:
- Exercise at least 30 minutes each day
- Eat a healthy, balanced diet, including seven servings of fruits and vegetables daily
- Don’t smoke
- Limit hormone replacement therapy to two to three years at the lowest dose
Detecting Cancer Sooner
Early diagnosis is the most effective tool for breast cancer survival. At IU Health, our tailored breast cancer prevention program enables women with a high risk of breast cancer to participate in early and intensive screening to detect cancers at the earliest curable stage. Advanced technologies and screening services available at IU Health include:
- Digital Mammography, a first line of screening to identify breast lumps.
- Breast Ultrasound, effective at distinguishing whether a lump is solid or fluid-filled.
- Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is advanced technology with the superior ability to detect early breast cancer in women with especially dense breast tissue. Revealing cancers that would otherwise not be detected with standard 2D mammography, DBT reduces unnecessary duplicate screenings by minimizing false findings views of pseudolesions (non-threatening lesions that mimic tumors) formed by overlapping normal breast tissue.
- Breast MRI is the most sensitive test available, detecting cancers that mammograms and ultrasound may miss, and making it the best choice for women at high risk.
- At IU Health, all breast imaging is interpreted by specialty trained breast radiologists. Specialty training reduces the likelihood that a breast cancer will be missed. We offer the only training program in Indiana for the next generation of radiologists specializing in breast imaging.
- If a diagnosis of breast cancer is made, more tests will be conducted in order to determine your stage of cancer and help guide future treatment plans. Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV, with stage IV being more advanced.
When dealing with breast cancer, the main goal is to provide the highest possibility of cure, but also to provide the best cosmetic outcome. Dr. Linda Han, discusses how this two-fold goal is best achieved with a multidisciplinary approach to breast cancer patients, as well as new surgical techniques such as skin sparing mastectomy.
Taking Action Through Treatment
No matter what stage of breast cancer you’re diagnosed with, you want to access to the most advanced treatments. IU Health has extensive experience treating all stages of breast cancer, including rare and aggressive cancers. Our multidisciplinary team includes medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists and reconstructive surgeons,
all top in their field.
Treatment options for breast cancer may include:
- Minimally invasive biopsy
- Targeted Chemotherapy medication to kill cancer cells
- Radiation therapy, including partial breast radiation and hypofractionated radiation,
- for shorter exposure
- Specialized surgical procedures such as small scar lumpectomy to remove a breast lump, mastectomy to remove all or part of the breast and affected nearby tissue, skin sparing, mastectomy and complete skin sparing mastectomy with preservation of nipple
Treatment does not end once the cancer has been removed. For most women, breast reconstruction is an option. IU Health offers advanced reconstruction techniques, including DIEP flaps.
Understanding Breast Cancer Treatment
Bone marrow and stem cell transplant
- Thyroid, adrenal cortex, and pancreas cancers
- Colon, rectum, appendix, bile duct, esophagus, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, small intestine, and stomach cancers
- Prostate, bladder, kidney, penis, and ureter cancers
- Cervix, ovary, uterus, vulva, and vagina cancers
Head and neck cancers
Hematology and hematologic malignancies
- Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma
- Liver, pancreas, and gall bladder cancers
- Brain, spinal cord, and metastatic nervous system tumors
- Soft tissue lesions and metastatic bone cancers
Skin cancer and melanoma
- Lung, esophagus, pleura, and chest wall cancers
- Thymus gland cancer
Understanding Breast Cancer Innovation
Lawrence Einhorn, MD, of the IU Simon Cancer Center researchers and physicians helped improve the cure rate of testicular cancer from 10 percent to nearly 95 percent today.
A study led by Doug Schwartzentruber, MD, at IU Health Goshen Center for Cancer Care was one of the first to demonstrate that therapeutic vaccines may have a benefit against cancer.
The Pancreatic Cyst and Cancer Early Detection Center led by C. Max Schmidt, MD, is the largest of its kind, treating more than 1,000 patients at-risk for pancreatic cancer to identify means of early detection and treatment.
Research conducted by Bryan Schneider, MD, of the IU Simon Cancer Center that identified a genetic biomarker that causes neuropathy among some breast cancer patients using certain chemotherapy drugs was named one of the top clinical research advances of 2011 by the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Robotic Assisted Imaging
Emma Rossi, MD, was the first to describe the use of robotic assisted near infrared imaging to map sentinel lymph nodes for endometrial and cervical cancers.