Alagille syndrome is a disease in which the liver has too few bile ducts. Children with Alagille syndrome will typically experience a progressive loss of the bile ducts inside the liver and a narrowing of the bile ducts outside the liver within the first year of life.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin Deficiency
Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protein made by the liver that helps block the actions of bad proteins related to inflammation and breakdown of tissues. When the liver does not make enough alpha-1 antitrypsin, other organs can be damaged, especially the lungs.
Autoimmune hepatitis is a form of liver disease that occurs when the immune system of the body attacks the liver. This attack of immune cells on the liver causes liver enzymes to rise as liver cells are injured and burst. Decreased liver function may cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin).
Biliary atresia is a blockage in the tubes (ducts) that carry bile (a digestive liquid that helps break down fats) from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Babies with biliary atresia are born with underdeveloped or blocked bile ducts.
Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the cells of the liver are damaged and can't repair themselves. As liver cells die, scar tissue forms. Cirrhosis occurs with many liver diseases.
Fulminant Hepatic Failure
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), also called acute liver failure, is defined as severe liver failure (including encephalopathy or decreased brain function) occurring within six weeks of onset of jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). The term is used to describe sudden liver failure in someone who was previously healthy.
Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver. It lives in liver cells and also in cells of the immune system. When the hepatitis B virus infects the liver, immune cells are attracted to the liver to help fight the infection. However, these disease-fighting cells can lead to liver inflammation.
Hepatitis C is a liver disease that causes injury to the liver in the form of inflammation. While there is an acute form of hepatitis C, children tend to have chronic hepatitis C. The disease can go undetected for years since most people with the virus do not show symptoms initially. Hepatitis C can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
NASH (Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis or Fatty Liver)
Fat can sometimes accumulate in the liver. Most commonly it is due to obesity. Fatty liver can also occur in people with diabetes, high cholesterol or high triglycerides and in people who take certain drugs.
Neonatal hepatitis is a term to describe the appearance of jaundice (yellowing of the skin) and/or elevated liver enzymes in infants. Blood work can show elevation in direct or conjugated bilirubin, indicating a liver problem. Some babies later will be diagnosed with other liver diseases while others will never be given a specific diagnosis.
Sclerosing cholangitis is a disease where inflammation of the bile ducts inside and outside the liver eventually leads to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. When this happens the ducts are unable to carry bile (liquid that breaks down fat) from the liver and bile builds up in the liver, causing cirrhosis or liver failure.
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which the body is unable to rid itself of excess copper. Copper is found in many foods and is an important nutrient for the body.