Skeletal Conditions

Skeletal Conditions

Congenital Conditions and Deformity

The cause of most skeletal malformations and congenital conditions is unknown, although many can be detected as early as the first trimester of pregnancy. We provide care for children of all ages with a wide range of limb deformities. Our services include:

  • Correcting limb length discrepancies, both congenital and acquired
  • Treating congenital absence or deficiency of the upper and lower extremities
  • Treating post-traumatic deformity
  • Treating congenital foot deformities (club foot, metatarsus varus, congenital vertica talus, and others)

To correct these conditions, our specialists and physicians use a variety of treatment methods, including guided-growth procedures, external fixation devices and multiple-level osteotomies (the cutting of bones). The methods we choose depend on the level of complexity of each individual case. For patients with limb-length discrepancies, long bone lengthening is also possible.


Dysplasia is generally the abnormal growth in bones caused by genetics or hormonal disturbances. The most common forms of dysplasia are achonodroplasia, commonly known as dwarfism, and hypochondroplasia, which is dwarfism affecting just the limbs. We also specialize in osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and angular deformity. Our skeletal dysplasia clinic is a collaboration between the genetics/metabolic team and our orthopedics team. We provide non-surgical and surgical management for the varying forms of dysplasia. We offer guided growth for bowlegs/knock-knees, as well as internal stabilization of bones in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) using implants.


Musculoskeletal tumors can occur in the bone (including the spine) or in soft tissue. Tumors affect the bone in many different ways, from minimal limb-length differences to severe deformity. Some tumors have no severe effects, but others will cause compression of a healthy bone. Various imaging technologies can help physicians assess the severity of the tumor and provide guidance on the best possible treatments.

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