Type 2 Diabetes

Specialists at IU Health help patients maintain good blood glucose control and avoid long-term problems

In type 2 diabetes, your pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin and/or your body does not respond to insulin appropriately.

Your cells need insulin in order to convert sugar (glucose) into energy for your body’s use. As a result, your blood sugar level rises above the normal range. Over time, high blood sugar can cause serious health issues.

Research shows that type 2 diabetes is genetic and obesity and lack of exercise can also lead to it. Our diabetes experts provide comprehensive, personalized care.

With high blood sugar levels, type 2 diabetes puts you at risk of developing:

  • Heart disease
  • Vascular disease
  • Kidney failure
  • Blindness
  • Injury to the nervous system

People used to refer to type 2 diabetes as adult-onset diabetes because it develops most often in middle-age or later. However, it now occurs frequently in young people, too.

Type 2 diabetes often develops gradually over several years. Physicians diagnose the condition through simple blood tests or screenings of people at risk.

Type 2 diabetes lasts a lifetime, but you can manage it with medication and changes to your diet and activity level. If you have type 2 diabetes, you do not need to face the condition alone. Your diabetes team will help you control your blood sugar and avoid short- and long-term health problems that can result from type 2 diabetes.

Overview

With high blood sugar levels, type 2 diabetes puts you at risk of developing:

  • Heart disease
  • Vascular disease
  • Kidney failure
  • Blindness
  • Injury to the nervous system

People used to refer to type 2 diabetes as adult-onset diabetes because it develops most often in middle-age or later. However, it now occurs frequently in young people, too.

Type 2 diabetes often develops gradually over several years. Physicians diagnose the condition through simple blood tests or screenings of people at risk.

Type 2 diabetes lasts a lifetime, but you can manage it with medication and changes to your diet and activity level. If you have type 2 diabetes, you do not need to face the condition alone. Your diabetes team will help you control your blood sugar and avoid short- and long-term health problems that can result from type 2 diabetes.

Your diabetes team will work with you to develop a patient- and family-centered diabetes management plan that addresses your specific symptoms, needs and preferences.

Your certified diabetes educator will help you make healthy food choices, monitor your blood sugar and take your medication properly. Your team will see you regularly to monitor your success and help you make any necessary adjustments to your therapy.

Your physicians’ partnership with the Indiana University School of Medicine Division of Endocrinology allows them to maintain the highest level of expertise and use the most up-to-date technology in caring for patients with type 2 diabetes. They have access to the latest findings in diabetes care and conduct scientific research to identify effective new treatment strategies. They help you achieve excellent control of type 2 diabetes so that you can lead an active and healthy life.

Your team of healthcare professionals works with you to develop a personalized Type 2 diabetes care plan. Treatment often includes:

  • Lifestyle changes. We will work with you to develop specific guidelines for exercise, weight management and nutritional therapy (diet). As part of an overall treatment plan, these steps can help you maintain normal or near-normal blood sugar levels.
  • Medication. We use a variety of medications, alone or often in combination, to control your blood sugar. Your diabetes team works with you to develop a therapy plan to prevent high blood sugar as well as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Several medications come in pill form. If pills do not keep your blood sugar at or near normal levels, you may need insulin therapy. Insulin comes in long-, short- and intermediate-acting types, allowing your physicians to tailor a regimen to your needs. Methods for administering insulin include syringes, insulin pens and insulin pumps.
  • Diabetes education. Our diabetes professionals help you develop the knowledge and skills to manage your specific needs and achieve the best possible control of Type 2 diabetes.
  • Blood glucose monitoring. Checking your blood sugar level regularly helps control diabetes and avoid health problems. Your diabetes care team works with you to develop a monitoring plan based on your needs. Methods include conventional home glucose monitors as well as newer approaches, such as continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). CGM uses a sensor placed under the skin to check blood sugar levels in real time. Your physicians will use advanced technology whenever possible to help you achieve the best possible glucose control.
  • Bariatric surgery. For morbidly obese individuals, one of several bariatric surgeries may help you lose weight. Options include: Gastric band surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients can often reduce their use of oral diabetes medications after losing about 30 pounds. Most IU Health bariatric surgery patients can stop taking oral medications as they lose more weight.

Treatment

Your diabetes team will work with you to develop a patient- and family-centered diabetes management plan that addresses your specific symptoms, needs and preferences.

Your certified diabetes educator will help you make healthy food choices, monitor your blood sugar and take your medication properly. Your team will see you regularly to monitor your success and help you make any necessary adjustments to your therapy.

Your physicians’ partnership with the Indiana University School of Medicine Division of Endocrinology allows them to maintain the highest level of expertise and use the most up-to-date technology in caring for patients with type 2 diabetes. They have access to the latest findings in diabetes care and conduct scientific research to identify effective new treatment strategies. They help you achieve excellent control of type 2 diabetes so that you can lead an active and healthy life.

Your team of healthcare professionals works with you to develop a personalized Type 2 diabetes care plan. Treatment often includes:

  • Lifestyle changes. We will work with you to develop specific guidelines for exercise, weight management and nutritional therapy (diet). As part of an overall treatment plan, these steps can help you maintain normal or near-normal blood sugar levels.
  • Medication. We use a variety of medications, alone or often in combination, to control your blood sugar. Your diabetes team works with you to develop a therapy plan to prevent high blood sugar as well as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Several medications come in pill form. If pills do not keep your blood sugar at or near normal levels, you may need insulin therapy. Insulin comes in long-, short- and intermediate-acting types, allowing your physicians to tailor a regimen to your needs. Methods for administering insulin include syringes, insulin pens and insulin pumps.
  • Diabetes education. Our diabetes professionals help you develop the knowledge and skills to manage your specific needs and achieve the best possible control of Type 2 diabetes.
  • Blood glucose monitoring. Checking your blood sugar level regularly helps control diabetes and avoid health problems. Your diabetes care team works with you to develop a monitoring plan based on your needs. Methods include conventional home glucose monitors as well as newer approaches, such as continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). CGM uses a sensor placed under the skin to check blood sugar levels in real time. Your physicians will use advanced technology whenever possible to help you achieve the best possible glucose control.
  • Bariatric surgery. For morbidly obese individuals, one of several bariatric surgeries may help you lose weight. Options include: Gastric band surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients can often reduce their use of oral diabetes medications after losing about 30 pounds. Most IU Health bariatric surgery patients can stop taking oral medications as they lose more weight.

Patient Stories for Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 diabetes will help you control it. Learn more about the condition using these resources:

You can also learn more by using these external resources:

Resources

Understanding Type 2 diabetes will help you control it. Learn more about the condition using these resources:

You can also learn more by using these external resources: