Thrive by IU Health

March 23, 2021

Generational Trauma: Breaking the Cycle of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Generational Trauma: Breaking the Cycle of Adverse Childhood Experiences

How Our Understanding of ACEs Provides Better Healing Care for Adults

“The child is the father of the man.”

That’s a favorite quote of IU Health psychiatrist R. Andrew Chambers, MD. Like many physicians and researchers, Chambers would argue that the environment in which a child grows up matters just as much – and sometimes more – than genetics in determining the child’s future health.

“What you experience in childhood and how you grow up have huge implications for how you are as an adult,” said Chambers. “There’s been a growing movement away from that knowledge in healthcare because we often focus more on genetics and medication than environment.”

Providing healing and care for children and adults means addressing generational challenges. Adverse childhood experiences can be passed from generation to generation as if they were genetic. But breaking that generational trauma is complex. There aren't easy solutions. It involves an intricate web of understanding the issue, preventing and treating the root issues.

What is an Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE)?

An adverse childhood experience (ACE) describes the abuse, trauma or neglect that creates toxic stress in a child’s brain, which has been linked with physical illness and mental health conditions as an adult. A child who is abused or raised without proper care, connection and affection has higher risks for:

“Adverse childhood experiences often come from various sources of violence,” said Mary Ciccarelli MD, an internist-pediatrician for Riley Children’s Health. “This could be witnessing or experiencing violence, neglect or abuse in your home or community, being close to someone who dies by suicide or being sexually assaulted in childhood.”

Typically, the parents of a child who experiences ACEs faced similar abuse or neglect when they were children, too. This effectively creates a vicious cycle that can last generations.

While living in poverty is considered an ACE, not all childhood trauma is related to socioeconomic groups. In fact, the groundbreaking study that first provided scientific evidence to link poor health outcomes with ACEs surveyed a population who was nearly 75% white and college educated.

“Perhaps your risk for ACEs is higher in neighborhoods where you may witness a drive-by shooting than if you lived in wealthier neighborhoods,” said Ciccarelli. “But witnessing problem drinking or intimate-partner violence in your home can happen in any culture and at any socioeconomic strata.”

ACEs by the numbers

One population who almost inevitably experiences childhood trauma is children in foster care. These children not only face absent parents but also disconnection, instability and trauma from whatever event caused their removal from their homes.

Consider: Nearly half of all children in the U.S. have at least one ACE. For kids at high risk for maltreatment – such as those in foster care – 91% have at least one ACE by the age of six. And likely a few more by age 16.

That’s according to Peggy Box, MA, behavioral health care specialist with the Foster Care Bridge Clinic at Riley Hospital for Children.

“They begin a cycle that accumulates more and more trauma,” Box said.

When compared to their peers, children with three or more ACEs are:

  • Three times more likely to have academic failure
  • Six times as likely to have behavioral issues
  • Five times more likely to have attendance problems

Identifying ACEs: Getting to the Root of Generational Trauma

In order to break the cycle of adverse childhood trauma, experts say ACEs must be identified and the trauma treated as soon as possible. Ideally this would take place before young people begin to have children of their own.

“The comparison between ACEs and genetics is very interesting because ACEs tend to be passed down as if they were genetic, but it’s a culture that’s passed down from generation to generation within families,” said Chambers. “If you have adequate mental health and addiction care delivered to the adult population—especially those who are having children and raising them—that is the best possible way to disrupt it.”

In some ways, understanding one’s ACE score could be compared to passing along the gene for high blood pressure: if you know you’re at risk, you can start implementing habits and medications to reduce your likelihood for problems down the road. Parents who understand their risk for ACEs can get help to avoid passing them on to their children.

“Prevention starts before and during pregnancy by making sure mom doesn’t get pregnant until she’s ready to have another child. This means counseling mothers on contraceptive care at the infant well checks,” said Dorota Szczepaniak, MD, pediatrician for Riley Children’s Health. “If we can educate pregnant women on how leaving their diabetes untreated will reduce their child’s intelligence, they may consider changing behavior.”

“Prevention also involves encouraging a father’s engagement in his child’s life and supporting these dads in developing their roles,” added Ciccarelli. “Before they become so stressed that they cannot function, parents need to have support—either naturally in social circles or through programs like Healthy Families or Parent Cafés so they have help when they need it.”

While some parenting lessons may be new to all expectant mothers, Szczepaniak said there are many child-rearing habits that some parents simply didn’t experience themselves as children. This leaves them unable to provide them for their own infants.

One frequent area of concern is responsiveness. This builds attachment between parent and child. It also can be impeded by a mother's depression.

“When you’re depressed, you’re flat and unresponsive. You may not interact with your child or make responsive facial expressions that convey connection,” said Szczepaniak.

She said they use Parent-Child Interactive Therapy. This therapy guides parents in how to talk, play and form emotional responses appropriately with their children. They also teach parents how important reading to a child is for improving vocabulary and decreasing stress.

“Essentially, we are helping parents become better parents,” Szczepaniak said.

Although it’s not mandatory education, experts say sending a child to preschool can help those living in stressful environments. Preschool gives these kids a safe haven in which to learn and grow.

“It’s so important to identify trauma early so we can stop future ACEs and get these kids into early evidence-based interventions such as Fist Steps, Head Start programs, developmental preschool or more trauma-focused intervention such as parent-child psychotherapy or parent-child interaction therapy, which have been shown to counteract the adverse effects of early childhood trauma,” said Box.

“I send some of my most affected patients to preschool, and I see them grow tremendously,” added Dr. Szczepaniak.

A Challenging Solution: ‘The Problem isn’t the Child, but in the ACEs’

Probably the most complex aspect of adverse childhood experiences is resolving them. Although it sounds counterintuitive, this trauma cannot be treated entirely through pediatric care. Dr. Chambers describes an effective approach to settle down the chaos and reduce harm by:

  • Limiting chaos or upheaval in a child’s life
  • Introducing boundaries
  • Achieving regularity in schedules
  • Helping parents avoid the criminal justice system
  • Encouraging parents to pursue their GED, college degree or technical occupation

“The conundrum pediatricians are always confronting is the category of ‘failure to thrive,’ or slowed growth, which happens to very young children and infants who experience abuse and neglect. There’s no real intervention because the problem isn’t the child, but in the ACEs that surround the child,” explained Chambers, who is the director of the Lab for Translational Neuroscience of Dual Diagnosis & Development at IU School of Medicine.

A family with a child experiencing bedwetting, stomach aches or delayed growth may need more help than anything a doctor can prescribe. In some situations, the family’s sole income earner may lose a job, or there’s no food in the refrigerator or a family who lost their home is pressured to live with a friend who abuses the children.

To begin detangling the trigger of a child’s trauma, a healthcare provider must use more resources than those available through traditional medicine.

“One of the advantages of caring for both children and adults is that I can shift from addressing a child’s need and into the mode of asking the parent about their mental health. If a parent confirms depression or discloses an intimate partner violence situation, physicians must know the resources and how to address that,” said Ciccarelli. “We’ve spent the last 20 years talking about domestic violence and post-partum depression in mothers, but as our understanding of ACEs advances, we are putting greater focus on the general mental health, cognitive ability and support system for the parent.”

Box works with foster caregivers to develop a “trauma-informed lens” through which they can help the child heal long term. While a young brain is vulnerable to damage from toxic stress, the organ is also equipped with a plasticity that allows children to build resiliency that aids in healing.

“One behavior we see a lot with traumatized children is tantrums. Whereas you might send a non-traumatized child to timeout for throwing a tantrum, we encourage foster parents to use a ‘time in’ procedure to avoid removing a child from relationships we are working so hard to heal,” said Box. “Caregivers can help children regulate their emotions and behaviors when they stay connected with them. The caregiver is the secure base that helps the child adventure out and explore their environment. The safe haven provides the child with security and regulation when things become overwhelming for them.”

In fact, resiliency is a crucial capability for children to develop, regardless of their circumstances.

“We need to build resilience in children, no matter how much toxic stress they experience,” added Dr. Szczepaniak. “If a young boy doesn’t have the stamina to play football, can he be the team photographer? If parents focus on the individual child, recognize his strengths and then empower, support and authentically praise him, parents can create connection and resilience in their children that will help them overcome adversity in adulthood.”

Addressing ACEs with Collaborative, Integrative Care

Adverse childhood experiences are created in a multi-generational web woven from culture, trauma and poor health outcomes. Thus, the healthcare response must be equally as complex. One way in which IU Health is addressing ACEs in patient populations is through integrative care.

This model uses a team approach to incorporate both mental healthcare and addiction care all under one roof for young adults who are reproductively active, said Chambers.

“When you do this, the psychotherapy helps correct the parenting experience, and the interaction between a patient and a psychotherapist can really repair relationship damage as these folks get to experience therapy through a positive, supportive relationship instead of a negative or exploitative one,” Chambers said.

A key to that network of support is an integrated team of healthcare providers moving together toward the same goal. At Riley Hospital for Children this includes social workers, child life specialists, a specialized child abuse prevention team and a full spectrum of clinical specialists—from child psychiatry to trauma coaches—working together to support families.

“All doctors and healthcare providers should communicate with each other and form a community around a patient and family,” said Szczepaniak. “Communication is crucial—whether that’s the obstetrician communicating with the pediatrician, family physician or specialists – to prevent errors and provide better care.”

Trained psychotherapists treat virtually the whole spectrum of mental illness and addiction. They also provide medication to treat the variety of anxiety and mood disorders linked to childhood trauma, including depression, PTSD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

“Now you’ve given the parents a team of people who care for and support them and a base of people helping them with their parenting skills in a way that isn’t criminalizing them,” said Chambers.

Ultimately, getting parents to that starting line to receive the care they need is often one of the largest roadblocks. Some adults have a perceived stigma about getting treatment for mental health issues or simply don’t recognize how it can help.

The ability to start the conversation and the knowledge of what resources are available to help these parents are how healthcare providers like IU Health physicians can help end the cycle of adverse childhood trauma.

“There isn’t always a solution, that is the hard reality of the matter. It can’t be simplified by just finding children new families,” said Dr. Ciccarelli. “But by working within communities, with agencies like child protection, employing early childhood mother-baby preventive strategies, encouraging father support agencies and supporting stressed, young parents, perhaps we can prevent ACEs before the cycle begins again.”

Community & Hospital Resources

Featured Services

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events occurring during youth that are linked to poor health in adults.

Latest Stories

Filter from

April 07, 2021 On a terrible day, Center gives victims hope Nicole Perkins meets people on the worst days of their lives. As a forensic nurse exami... April 07, 2021 IU Health COVID-19 Data IU Health is committed to being a trusted source of information for the public during t... April 07, 2021 Philanthropy could help fund more Centers of Hope Providing emergency services for victims of sexual assault, domestic violence, child ab... April 07, 2021 10 Myths about Sexual Assault April is Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month. To help Hoosiers learn more abo... April 06, 2021 A true giver at heart Saving lives—that’s the main concern for the IU Health Bloomington Hospital Emergency... April 05, 2021 Doctor flies for a cause that has paws His career is in medicine, but this doctor extends his caring spirit outside the hospit... April 04, 2021 Sepsis invaded nurse’s body, but not her determination It started with a persistent cough. In no time at all, Alixandra “Alix” Gerringer was a... April 02, 2021 Fighting as a community In just over 100 days, the IU Health South Central Region has given out over 60,000 COV... April 01, 2021 A success story thanks to support from the team Katelyn Cole believes her success is from the team that supported her. “My life was r... March 31, 2021 Q1 2021 Quarterly Report: The year that changed the way we give. Crystal Hinson Miller, chief philanthropy officer for Indiana University Health and pre... March 31, 2021 The next new shot: Help for patients diagnosed with HIV For years, people diagnosed with HIV have taken a steady regiment of oral medication. N... March 29, 2021 Never Too Young - Here’s how this 22-year-old is Fighting Stage 4 Colon Cancer By IU Health Senior Journalist, T.J. Banes, She’s 22. She was 21... March 28, 2021 Rare Disease Treated at IU Health; Can Take Years to Diagnose By IU Health Senior Journalist T.J. Banes, At first, there were ... March 24, 2021 Diagnosis: Hodgkin’s lymphoma - She spent her birthday in the hospital At first she thought she had allergies, and then Christine Kirk heard the word, “cancer... March 22, 2021 Patient moved to Indy for treatment of multiple myeloma By the time she got her diagnosis and became a patient of IU Health, Irene Johnson was ... March 21, 2021 Memorial & meditation: Doctor says ‘It is from the intensity of the loss we felt’ Deep sadness, feelings of helplessness, and overwhelming anxiety of what’s to come - me... March 18, 2021 Social worker, nurse – Dynamic duo in critical care They are a team, and when it comes to caring for the sickest patients, these two go abo... March 18, 2021 Grant expands IU Health virtual behavioral health services to rural counties A highly regarded IU Health virtual behavioral health program has received $1.2 million... March 17, 2021 Putting faith into practice to reach patients in isolation “A big part of getting well happens outside the doors of IU Health.” Shadreck Kamwend... March 17, 2021 Teens in Orange County high schools to benefit from counseling The timing couldn’t have been worse: Even as Indiana high school students report high ... March 16, 2021 Don’t Let Spring Forward Leave You Behind: 6 Tips for Healthy Sleep While most of us are ready for warmer weather and longer days, ‘losing’ that extra hour... March 15, 2021 About women’s health: Nurse’s career spans more than four decades in OB/GYN She’s been part of a team that delivered twins, triplets, quadruplets, and quintuplets;... March 14, 2021 Eight people form a kidney ‘chain;’ Four people receive the gift of life It’s like a tiny sapling that grows into a tree. One person plants the seed and the oth... March 11, 2021 Testicular cancer patient travels from Chile to Indianapolis for world-class care Pedro Cordua lives in Chile and has been battling testicular cancer for two years. He c... March 10, 2021 Johnson & Johnson Vaccine: Your Questions Answered Now that clinicians have begun to administer the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine in ... March 04, 2021 Screening Mammography & COVID-19 Vaccine: What to Know Screening mammograms and COVID-19 vaccines are both very important for your health. Som... March 03, 2021 "Angels ... Wear Red": Letter of Appreciation Thanks Nurse at IU Health Arnett Hospital How do you ever say thank you to the one that saved your life? Pastor Jim Higdon wrote ... March 03, 2021 IU Health announces applications for Community Impact Investment Fund IU Health is pleased to announce the next round of applications for funding from the Co... February 26, 2021 Why heart health is important when recovering from COVID-19 Originally printed in the Indianapolis Business Journal on February 5, 2021Keeping Hoos... February 26, 2021 IU Health introduces online price estimate tool Before you schedule medical care, your out-of-pocket costs may be top of mind. Can I af... February 25, 2021 Welcome to the world, baby Henry! The IUHP Midwifery practice welcomed its 100th baby on Valentine’s Day. His birth didn’... February 19, 2021 Hospice nurse: ‘I hold their hand and let them know they are loved’ She’s sat at the bedside of countless patients. In their final moments, they are often ... February 18, 2021 Infusion helps patients in early stages of COVID-19 As the Coronavirus continues to impact Indiana residents IU Health offers a treatment t... February 17, 2021 Heart disease and women: The reality. The symptoms. Now hear this! One out of four women, a truly frightening and staggering statistic, wil... February 17, 2021 Cardiac Rehab: ‘Giving Life Back to Patients’ When someone has a heart attack, we often hear about the role of quick intervention in ... February 16, 2021 A Program With Heart: Serving Adults With Congenital Heart Disease For most people, the phrase “congenital heart disease” likely brings to mind babies and... February 15, 2021 Telehealth enables patients to receive care in their community During this pandemic, we have all learned the value of technology in being able to work... February 15, 2021 The HALO® BassiNest® swivel sleeper introduces a new level of care for newborns at Arnett For the Mother Baby unit at Indiana University Health Arnett Hospital, the number one g... February 15, 2021 Patient receives stem cells from daughter He’s smiling. Douglas Haywood is glad to have company and he’s glad to be celebrating h... February 14, 2021 Husband donates liver to wife: ‘There was never any question I’d do it’ There were seizures, there was jaundice. As Heather Buchanan’s health declined, it was ... February 12, 2021 Heartbeats keep loved ones close when family members’ hearts ache Music therapy is part of the IU Health’s CompleteLife Program, attending to the mind, b... February 10, 2021 Firefighter felt like death was in the room Jim Redd is not one to give up easily, but even this previously healthy guy was no matc... February 08, 2021 How to Get Started Exercising at Home For a year, we've spent more time at home than ever. Although gyms and fitness cen... February 08, 2021 How to Stay Active & Healthy During Cold Winter Even in the best of winters, many of us take a cue from grizzly bears and spend the who... February 05, 2021 Transplant patient from the Middle East: ‘Here the doctors are confident, courageous’ He traveled more than 7,000 miles, about 20 hours by plane, and spent 10 months in Indi... February 04, 2021 Cardiovascular Institute Unites Patient Care and Research Cardiovascular disease is the No. 1 cause of death in Indiana and around the world, but... February 03, 2021 Cardiovascular Patient Has a Heart for Giving Back Ron Fredrick didn’t think he was going to die. Others weren’t so optimistic. In 2018, t... February 03, 2021 Irsay Gift Expands Successful Addiction Program A $1 million boost from Indianapolis Colts owner Jim Irsay is allowing a proven addicti... February 01, 2021 Married 46 years, they call themselves ‘the cancer couple’ They met when they were students at Indiana University, married, and enjoyed a life tra... January 29, 2021 Trauma, military service, and travel – Art therapist brings a mix of experiences She’s worked with people who experienced trauma, and she’s served with the military sta... January 27, 2021 Two-time kidney recipient: One from his wife, another from his friend National media outlets hovered like bees at a honey pot when they learned the love stor... January 26, 2021 Foundation Grants $603,279 to Benefit Patients, Team Members Systemwide IU Health hospitals across the state have received more than $600,000 in grants from IU... January 26, 2021 Tens of thousands of COVID vaccinations: Two people behind the scenes at one clinic They work tirelessly, coordinating the sites that administer the life-saving vaccine. H... January 22, 2021 Local Business Owner Gives to Racial Equity in Healthcare Fund If you’ve seen The Wire or Homicide: Life on the Streets, you might think you know what... January 22, 2021 Great Care: The Universal Language Imagine being ill or injured, and not being able to understand the doctors and nurses w... January 22, 2021 Mullins Supplies Much of What IU Health Needs Dennis Mullins’ career has been geared toward a year like 2020. His military logistics ... January 22, 2021 Rev Donors Support the “Trauma of Social Injustice” When IU Health Foundation realized it had to cancel its 2020 Rev Indy event due to the ... January 19, 2021 Great grandma, 85, rolls up her sleeve: ‘I want to see my Family’ She’s not accustomed to sitting still and slowing down. Yet, like many, a pandemic buil... January 18, 2021 What to Expect After COVID-19 Vaccine As the COVID-19 vaccine rollout has expanded to more Hoosiers in recent days, you may b... January 15, 2021 IU Health Arnett announces leadership promotions Christopher Mansfield, MD has been promoted to Associate Chief Medical Officer (ACMO) f... January 08, 2021 Chief Nursing Officer receives DNP Marilyn Riley, vice president and chief nursing officer at IU Health Frankfort, recentl... January 08, 2021 IU Health Arnett Hospital announces retirement of President Daniel Neufelder, FACHE, president of Indiana University Health Arnett and the West Cen... January 05, 2021 Tips for Isolation, Anxiety, and Seasonal Depression During COVID-19 For most of us, this winter is unlike anything we’ve ever experienced before. Not only ... December 20, 2020 She’s a respiratory therapist with asthma, and she’s on the front lines Jody White didn’t have to treat COVID-positive patients at Methodist Hospital, but opti... December 18, 2020 Physicians implore their communities to take COVID vaccine when it's time IU Health infectious disease physicians from around the state feel confident in taking ... December 17, 2020 IU Health begins COVID-19 vaccines: 'Light at the end of a very long tunnel' IU Health took possession of the first COVID-19 vaccines in central Indiana on Wednesda... December 17, 2020 Coping with Grief and Loss This Holiday Season The holiday season is often a time of year in which a wide range of emotions can arise.... December 17, 2020 Behavioral health numbers up; Fighting holiday stress during a pandemic The past year has been filled with anxiety, disappointment, and heartache. Never has it... December 16, 2020 Veteran nurse: ‘I can’t tell you how hard it is to see that lonely patient in bed’ For more than two decades she’s sat at the bedside of her patients. Now, IU Health Nurs... December 15, 2020 ‘Baskets of Cheer’ boost front-line teams During a stressful day, a quick cup of coffee or snack can make a big difference, espec... December 15, 2020 New program allows patients to heal at home In April, when the impact of the pandemic began to hit home, IU Health had an idea to h... December 15, 2020 COVID-19 vaccine: Freezers ready to store; Staff ready to administer first doses It’s been a long time coming but now, a new vaccine is making its debut in the fight ag... December 14, 2020 Steps to Eating Healthy at Home It may be an understatement to say that the year 2020 has been quite the whirlwind. The... December 13, 2020 First patient who received COVID-fighting infusion: ‘Hardest part was the needle’ When she signed up to receive a new monoclonal antibody to help ward off her symptoms o... December 12, 2020 Wigs can help cancer patients feel sense of control When you combed or brushed your hair this morning, you likely didn’t think much about h... December 11, 2020 Watch: IU Health experts answer COVID-19 vaccine questions With COVID-19 vaccine approval just around the corner, IU Health experts address a numb... December 10, 2020 Generational Trauma: Breaking the Cycle of Adverse Childhood Experiences How Our Understanding of ACEs Provides Better Healing Care for Adults “The child is th... December 10, 2020 First a Riley patient; Now at 25, athlete is a patient at IU Health Simon Cancer Center At the age of three he became a patient at Riley Hospital for Children at IU Health. No... December 09, 2020 COVID-19 Vaccine: What You Need to Know With COVID-19 cases on the rise in Indiana and across the country, a ray of hope exists... December 09, 2020 IU Health vascular team’s phone app focuses on blood clots and COVID patients As health care providers piece together the impact of the deadly coronavirus, a team of... December 08, 2020 Indiana University Health Arnett welcomes new Chief Nursing Officer, Allison Shuttz, MSN, RN, NE-BC Allison Shuttz, MSN, RN, NE-BC, has been appointed Chief Nursing Officer for Indiana Un... December 08, 2020 For two years, this young mom could not speak Her 2-year-old was just a baby when Maranda Slusser stopped talking. Two more children ... December 04, 2020 Tranquility Spaces Provide a Respite For Frontline Team Members Sometimes even heroes need a break … a chance to slow down, take a breath, gather their... December 03, 2020 Hospital chaplain: From bedside compassion to hospitalized care She’s sat at the bedside of new moms and patients undergoing radiation therapy. She’s a... December 02, 2020 “I thank God I’ve come through it” As a COVID-19 “long hauler,” Sarah Hagan found help through IU Health’s Convalescing CO... December 02, 2020 She cares for patients with COVID and carries on her mother’s legacy Her mother worked for IU Health, and for two decades this nurse has followed in her foo... November 30, 2020 Calling a Code Lavender If you’ve watched a hospital-based television show, you’ve probably seen the following ... November 30, 2020 Hospital workers – Giving hearts on holidays and every day They work tirelessly every shift, every day. Most never anticipated living through a pa... November 29, 2020 He was looking for a liver giver and she delivered Wayne Brown posted on Facebook that he needed a new liver. A long-time friend saw his p... November 24, 2020 IU Health Frankfort Hospital now open The new IU Health Frankfort Hospital is open and ready to serve you. A fence around the... November 24, 2020 Nurse down 75 pounds: ‘Self-care is vital, especially during a pandemic’ As a progressive critical care nurse, Kristy Fields sees many patients treated for symp... November 23, 2020 Q4 2020 Quarterly Report: COVID-19 brings community together, while social distancing Crystal Hinson Miller, chief philanthropy officer for Indiana University Health and pre... November 23, 2020 Father of five girls gets wish with hospital bedside wedding Seven weeks ago, Matthew Rynearson was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine tumor. When he e... November 20, 2020 Transplant Gratitude Triggers $1 Million in Funding Technically, Jerome Josephs received a kidney when he underwent a transplant at IU Heal... November 19, 2020 In the Midst of a Pandemic, Three Foundation Team Members Achieve International Certification Diane Buzzell, Julie Paolillo and Kate Konzen have several new letters after their name... November 19, 2020 Rock band member chooses IU Health for testicular cancer treatment Minnesota native Ryan Keyes came to Indianapolis to play drums in a rock band. Now, he’... November 18, 2020 Offering help to go tobacco-free during COVID-19 People who are tobacco users and who vape have a higher chance of getting COVID-19. IU ... November 17, 2020 How to Stay Safe & Healthy This Holiday Season With COVID-19 cases surging across the state, it may be time to rethink your traditiona... November 17, 2020 Long-time nurse known for educating the next generation of nurses She has been at the bedside of countless patients – the sickest of the sick, and Marcia... November 15, 2020 Father Donates Kidney to Young Son: “It’s a Huge Sigh of Relief” By IU Health Senior Journalist T.J. Banes, It was in her 20th we...